Rostov the Great has a typical temperate continental climate, where residents can fully experience all four seasons. Locals enjoy the comfortable, warm summers and the beautiful, snowy winters. Tourists are often pleased to find that Rostov has a climate comparable to Denver, Chicago, and Cleveland.

The winter weather in Rostov begins in about November and usually goes on for five months, into spring. The coldest month of the year is typically January, with an average temperature of 10 °F.

The springtime months usually have low precipitation. From the end of March into April, there is often a thaw, and much of the ice and snow melts to reveal foliage underneath. Temperatures in April often reach 70 °F.

Summers in Rostov are typically wet with some heavy rainstorms. The summer often reaches its hottest point during the months of June and July, with an average daily temperature of 74 °F, and often days over 85 °F.

From September begins the two-month-long fall, with high humidity, fewer sunny days, and unpredictable temperatures (it is possible to first see ground frost in September).

On average, Rostov receives 23 inches of precipitation per year. The wettest month is July with over 3 inches of rain, and the driest months are usually February and March.